Development and application of solar cells (1)
Also known as photovoltaic solar cells, is able to effectively absorb solar radiation, and make it into power semiconductor devices. It can be as light detection devices alone, for example, the use of cameras, mainly through the series and parallel, to obtain the required voltage and current as the power supply used. The appearance of solar cells as a thin card or a thin glass, as different in appearance from ordinary batteries, which itself can not store energy, that is, no power when not to bright, if the night to use it, it is necessary and batteries used in conjunction.
The area of solar cells per 100 cm 2 in strong sunlight generates about one watt of electricity, we often say 1 kWh is 1 kilowatt-hour, that is, 1 kW 1 hour battery that can produce 1 kWh of electricity.
Solar Development Overview
Solar photovoltaic power generation, can be regarded as by far the most beautiful, oldest and most reliable power generation technology. Compared with solar power, it is also involved in semiconductor devices, neither moving parts nor the flow of working fluid, therefore, to avoid the corrosion of mechanical maintenance and engineering quality problems, renewable energy and sustainable development of a reliable energy.
The development of silicon solar cells, starting in 1954, the United States Institute of Bell successful trial the following year, telecommunications equipment will be used as the power, the United States in 1958 and the first application and in the "Pioneer 1" satellite. Space Development has greatly promoted the development of solar cells. At the same time, the ground with solar cell research is also ongoing, in particular, the energy crisis in 1973, has greatly accelerated the development of solar cell surface. For the development of many countries, the use of solar cells, solar power generation study for the equivalent amount of funds invested. So far thousands of flying in space vehicles, most are equipped with solar cell systems. God first artificial satellite, is the starting point for the use of photovoltaic technology development, after nearly five decades of development, it has formed a new solar photovoltaic science and engineering. Both in space flight application, or as a ground power systems applications, from development speed, technical maturity and applications point of view, photovoltaic technology is the leader in new energy sources.
Solar cells as a potential renewable energy, the ground gradually be promoted. Cost and selling price of solar cells also decreased year by year, the output of solar cells over the years has been to increase the growth rate of 10-25%. 1990 world production of solar modules 70MW (megawatts), China is 1.2MW, is mainly used in remote areas of good sunlight. By 2001 the world solar cell production reached 350MW, the actual production of solar cells in China has reached 4.5MW, the cumulative installed capacity of over 20MW. China is a developing country, a vast territory, there are many remote provinces and underdeveloped areas. According to statistics, China now there are 7 million (28 million population), no access to electricity, 60% of the severe power shortages and electricity County. These areas can not rely in the short term to solve the electricity problem of normal power, photovoltaic power generation is resolved scattered farmers and herdsmen, the ideal way to power, the market potential is huge.
Photovoltaic power generation has many advantages: such as: safe, reliable, no noise, no pollution, energy widely available, without geographical restrictions, not fuel consumption, no mechanical moving parts, low failure rate, easy maintenance, you can unattended, build stop short cycle, random size, no frame transmission lines, can easily combined with the building, etc. These are the other advantages of the reach of power generation.
Now widely used internationally for the single crystal silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells and amorphous silicon solar cells of three, each of these three battery about 1 / 3 of the market, China currently has seven solar cell production lines, mainly production of silicon and amorphous silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells have a small amount of production. Production of monocrystalline silicon solar cell efficiency of 12-13%, 10% polycrystalline silicon solar cells, amorphous silicon solar cells at 5-6%. Crystalline silicon solar cell research is a step in the high-efficiency, thin slices of a large area in the direction of development. Crystalline silicon solar cells in 1995, components of the reference price of 45 yuan / watt, amorphous silicon solar module is 25 yuan / W, is still several times the conventional energy sources, but in areas without electricity and convenient place to pull has produced good economic results.
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