Drastic changes in market structure during the solar cell is about to enter the popular
In the 1970s, the oil crisis in the Middle East to promote solar research and development. Conditioned by a number of systems, after 30 years of development, solar power still can not serve as the primary means universal.
With the energy saving and the rise of the green economy, as the emerging solar energy more and more people's attention. Compared to hydropower and nuclear energy, solar energy can be said to be inexhaustible, it is more convenient than other energy sources. (Note: The solar wind is a kind of article does not cover). Solar energy is the most important renewable resources, solar cells transform solar energy into electrical energy can be applied to a variety of occasions.
Drastic changes in market structure
Currently, the solar cell market competition, Europe and Japan leading the pattern has been broken. The world's highest sales volume in 2008 is the German company Q-Cell, the second of Japan's Sharp, the first third of the U.S. solar energy (FirstSolar) Corporation, the fourth for the Chinese Suntech. The top four in the output above 500 MW, the first one than the first over four 80 MW. The 2009 World Solar Battery annual sales, number one is the first U.S. solar, Suntech China ranked second, third Japan's Sharp, Germany's Q-Cell placing him fourth. The above data from the U.S. isuppli company. According isuppli statistics, in 2008 global sales of 6734 MW of solar cells in 2009, about 10,000 MW. 2009 compared with 2008 sales of solar cells increased by 30 percent. Germany's Q-Cell placing him fourth in which the background is the company's deficit, reduced sales. U.S. solar companies to the first low-cost solar cells as a weapon, increased sales more than doubled, to become the "new division champion."
The reason why these changes occur, a more profound reason is that international economic changes in recent years. In 2008 the U.S. housing market turmoil triggered by the global financial crisis, the slowdown in world economic development, solar cell market has hit rock bottom. Making matters worse, because the suspension of preferential policies to Spain, causing the solar cell market bubble burst. In addition, the main raw material silicon single crystal silicon solar cell prices, the highest point from 70 U.S. dollars / kg sharp decline, the original supply of the silicon market in the supply of "surplus" situation. Under the influence of the above two reasons, silicon prices plunged in 2009. However, a blessing in disguise bad thing, but to make silicon prices of polysilicon solar cells in 2009 than in 2008 to reduce production costs by 30% or more, making it a relatively large increase sales. More dramatically, the first U.S. solar companies have sprung up everywhere in 2009 to low-cost CdTe solar cells as a weapon, quickly won a solar cell market. 1 solar energy in Malaysia, the plant yields a substantial increase in production costs corresponding significant decline in CdTe solar cells is currently No. 1 competitor is only 40% of the cost. From the second half of 2009, the lower the price of solar cells, photovoltaic power generation system driven by a significant reduction in the price.
Policies to promote
Southern Italian sunshine and the large amount of high electricity prices. Since 2007, local governments and residents of the Italian joint venture set up photovoltaic companies. Italian government introduced a high-priced purchase of renewable energy power generation "FIT" policy, policy driven, three years in Italy the installation of solar photovoltaic systems increased by 45 times. EPIA European Photovoltaic Energy Association in June 2009 report published in 2010 in southern Europe will begin to achieve photovoltaic power generation and electricity prices close to the situation.
The past three years, Italy has attracted attention worldwide solar cell manufacturers. SunPower Corporation in Italy, the United States built the world's largest photovoltaic power plant of 85 MW in December 2009 put into operation, the photovoltaic power plant using SunPower's high efficiency solar cells. ST Microelectronics STMicroelectronics joint venture with Japan's Sharp companies in Italy to build a solar cell manufacturing plant. Mitsubishi Electric of Japan from November 2009 onwards, the Italian Cooperation COOP living homes built to provide maximum 2.9 megawatts of solar modules.
Since the beginning of 2006, the Japanese government to terminate the subsidy policy of photovoltaic power generation, the number of photovoltaic power generation equipment installed in 2005 dropped to 70,000 units in 2007 to less than 5 million units. The Japanese Government last couple of years introduced a series of policies to encourage solar power, especially from January 2009 onwards, the Japanese recovery subsidy policy, then the number of installed photovoltaic power generation equipment increased to 12 million units, a record high . Total of 50 million units in Japan, photovoltaic power generation equipment in 2009 accounted for 24%, nearly a quarter. Policies to promote the effect of a glance. Currently in Japan, the new apartment, a considerable number of roof installed photovoltaic power generation equipment. The water chemical company building new homes, for example, 77% of installed photovoltaic power generation equipment. According to the February 2009 to July's statistics, the water chemical company's new residential, with a solar system has reached 2800. In addition, according to the Japanese built a large apartment of large companies in Beijing, the company and switch to the new installation of photovoltaic power generation equipment, the Japanese oil company data, if each household installed 1.2 kilowatts of photovoltaic power generation equipment, not only to meet the household electricity at home all day, and can provide excess electricity to the grid. Promotion policy, according to Japan's current pace of development of photovoltaic power generation equipment, can be achieved ahead of schedule before the Japanese government's 2020 28G W 2030 53G-watt PV equipment installation number of goals.
Driven by government policy, Japan from 2009 onwards a significant decline in the price of photovoltaic power generation equipment, especially second half of 2009, a number of vendors competing in the situation, the price of photovoltaic power generation reduced to 40 yen / kW, per W $ 4.5, this is 2008, the price of photovoltaic power generation equipment 30% to 50%. If the Japanese government at all levels taking into account the introduction of photovoltaic power generation grants policy, some places have been lower than the market price of PV electricity prices. Many vendors have introduced old building install 450,000 yen / kW, $ 5 per watt installed price of solar cells. Uses a lot of these companies in China and South Korea's solar modules. Tokyo, Japan for the small town's new building, competitive photovoltaic installation price is 420,000 yen / watt, to accept the Japanese government subsidies, reduced to 350,000 yen / watt; Tokyo, after allowance for the 楼 250,000 / W; accept the small town after the new construction subsidies, the actual installation price is 70,000 yen ~ 220,000 yen / watt. If the Japanese government in accordance with the provisions of the preferential power purchase price - to buy 48 yen per kWh of surplus electricity for six years to recover the investment. To calculate the equipment for 20 years, the cost of electricity per kilowatt-hour for 3 yen to 11 yen, lower than the thermal power in Japan 12 yen per kilowatt-hour price. Although this is an individual case can be said that Japan is now able to close photovoltaic electricity supply prices. If the PV power generation and electricity supply prices are pretty, would mean that the popularity of solar cells into a stage.
After the Obama administration the United States, support the development of new energy sources, solar cell production is growing rapidly. In 2009 the U.S. government to extend the solar photovoltaic tax preferential policies to promote the U.S. solar industry's largest development.
Three-horse race for solar cells
2009 was the great development of CdTe solar cells, silicon thin film solar cells of traditional and emerging thin-film CIGS solar cell is a solar cell three. CdTe solar cells, low cost, mass production of the storm broke, the disadvantage is vulnerable to the effects of crystal defects, to further improve the conversion efficiency in the little room. In addition, Cd and Te toxic people. In recent years, large area silicon thin film solar cell manufacturing technology develop rapidly, the shortcomings of silicon thin-film batteries is also vulnerable to the effects of crystal defects, the use of a few years later, the solar cell conversion efficiency will be reduced a few percent. The CIGS solar cells more easily in the laboratory trial of high conversion efficiency of the battery, but mass production, the material utilization is low, the battery has a lower yield.
From the competition point of view of solar cells, the past is a single silicon and polycrystalline silicon solar cells against, overall manufacturing costs and efficiency in terms of both polycrystalline silicon solar cells dominate in the competition. In recent years, polycrystalline silicon and thin film solar cells is against, affecting the key to victory is to use silicon more or less, and whether suitable for mass production. Is currently in the traditional crystalline silicon solar cells, thin-film silicon solar cells and thin-film solar cells between the three compounds to carry out the competition. Improve efficiency and reduce costs, as solar cells a key factor in the outcome of competition.
Throughout 2009, the market, the U.S. company's first low-cost solar cells and CdTe solar Suntech China, Japan, Sanyo Electric, U.S. companies such as SunPower's high-conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell to obtain long-term development. The conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells and generally thin-film solar cell manufacturers fall into decline. For example, first place in 2008 in Germany Q-Cell, as the production of ordinary conversion efficiency of solar cells in 2009, a substantial share of the market decline, the cumulative deficit in the third quarter of 2009 945 million euros, market share fell to the world's first 4, No. 1 U.S. sales of less than half the solar energy. 1st solar sales broke the world's first 1,000 MW mark. Production of high-efficiency monocrystalline silicon cells SunPower, as was Italy's largest single market ranking from No. 9 in 2008 rose to No. 7 in 2009. It can be seen in the past is inexpensive silicon-based solar cells dominant in recent years is the amount of silicon material used only for the current mainstream crystalline silicon solar cells 1 / 100 of the thin-film solar cells prevail. Although the conversion efficiency of thin-film battery an average of 6-9%, however, greatly increased its market share, the reason behind the 2006 to 2008 silicon material prices soared 15 times. In 2009, the Spanish solar cells because the bubble burst and the financial crisis and a series of factors, silicon prices dropped back to early 2006 levels, coupled with advances in technology, efficiency monocrystalline silicon solar cells and CdTe solar batteries become mainstream.
The current solar cell market is crowded, and since competition in the market share. Looking ahead a few years, high conversion efficiency and low-cost solar cells who can prevail it? Forward side by side or both? Experts believe that if we can get a steady supply of low-cost silicon, highly efficient solar cells will develop smoothly in homes, apartments, buildings and other restricted area of 鈥嬧€媡he roof and the roof and other places can give full play to the advantages of high efficiency. Japanese mergers and acquisitions by Panasonic Sanyo claimed that the funds in support of Matsushita, is confident with its low cost and high efficiency HIT solar cells, two years later than Sharp's market share in Japan first.
On the other hand, the strong development momentum of CdTe solar cells, by its large-scale occupation of the lowest cost market. In addition to low cost, in addition, CdTe solar cells can develop rapidly because of easy to produce crystals of good material, made easier in the mass production of large area solar cells. CdTe solar cells, CIGS solar cells rivals in recent years by leaps and bounds. At present, Solyndra, GroupSatsolar, Solibro, GlobalSolar and Showa Shell Solar and other companies, CIGS solar cell output will reach 100 MW or after the formal commissioning of 100 MW can be up and down. There are currently more than 30 companies worldwide mass production and mass production of CIGS solar cells is about. CIGS solar cell conversion efficiency advantage is expected to further increase with the technological advances, mass production costs will be reduced. CdTe-based future, the possibility of greatly improved efficiency is relatively low, has encountered a "ceiling." As a rising star, the production of CIGS solar cells Showa Shell Solar claims that in 2011 its production of up to 980 MW. Solyndra's claimed that in 2012 its CIGS solar cell production will reach 700 MW. Nanosolar plans production will reach 640 MW. That several manufacturers to develop CIGS solar cells was strong.
Competition to promote cost reduction
Pack and play, making the solar cell production greatly increased. From the production cost point of view, the beginning of 2009, CdTe-based solar cell module cost for the first time exceeded $ 1 per watt barrier. Third quarter of 2009, CdTe solar cells and achieve cost $ 0.85 per watt. Removal of building a new plant investment and other factors, the actual manufacturing cost is only $ 0.80 per watt. In contrast, the record for the same period in 2009 the average production levels of polycrystalline silicon solar cells and silicon one-third of the cost of thin film solar cells of half the cost. In addition, in the latest production line for CdTe solar cells, the conversion efficiency of 11.1%.
Germany SolibroGmbH production of CIGS solar cells cost, in 2010 less than one euro per watt. Johnson & Johnson China's thin-film photovoltaic solar cell production costs in 2010 will achieve $ 0.7 per watt, the sales price will be $ 1.0 to 1.2 U.S. dollars. As an emerging company in India MoserBaer optical company, recently made "to achieve 500 megawatts of thin-film solar cells when mass production will cost $ 0.77 per watt," the target. It is worth the book is that China's solar cell manufacturers in 2009 to lead the world, raised RMB 1 per watt cost of photovoltaic power generation target. It can be said, in the world, solar cells have generally entered the low-cost production stage. It is worth emphasizing, low-cost, environmental adaptability, and largely unaffected by fluctuations in the price of silicon thin-film solar cells, has become a strong support for the development of photovoltaic solar cells and wide spread of strong backing.
Around the world, China Taiwan semiconductor giant Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, South Korea's Samsung and LG Electronics and other companies, in 2010, have entered the solar cell market. India, Singapore and other countries has long been the solar cell as a pillar industry. The face of the big solar market is booming trend, it is no exaggeration to say that solar is about to enter the popular period.
Other Electronics News: